Polymorphic functions and parameter handling

JavaScript functions are very flexible when it comes to receiving parameters. Actually, functions can take any number of parameters via the arguments special variable. It is up to the developer to support different combinations of parameters by checking their type and handling them correctly. Good news is that this logic can be encapsulated and reused to easily build polymorphic functions.

Let’s start with an example of a poorly written function, which manually checks for the types of the input parameters. The function identifies optional, non provided parameters and gives them default values if possible.

function provideSum(a, b, f) {
  if (f === undefined) {
    f = b;
    b = 0;

  if (f === undefined) {
    f = a;
    a = 0;

  if (!f) {
    throw new Error('no function provided!');

  f(a + b);

What the heck is going on here? It is not immediate to see which parameters the function requires, which ones can be omitted and which default values are automatically provided by the implementation. Most of the code is just about shuffling parameters around, distracting the developer from the real purpose of the function.

What I want to achieve is a simple way to define how the behaviour of the function changes when different parameters are passed. Something like the following:

var provideSum = when(
  matches('function', function (f) {

  matches('number', 'function', function (n, f) {

  matches('number', 'number', 'function', function (a, b, f) {
    f(a + b)

To make this solution work I have to implement a couple of functions, matches and when. The first function I’m going to implement is matches, which checks if an array of arguments fulfills the requirements expressed by the user. If the parameter values match the specification, a function (which is the last parameter of the call to matches) is returned. Otherwise, matches simply returns null.

function array(args) {
  return Array.prototype.slice.call(args);

function matches() {
  var types = array(arguments).slice(0, -1);
  var fn = array(arguments).slice(-1).pop();

  function matcher(args) {
    if (args.length !== types.length) {
      return null;

    var match = args.every(isCorrectInstance);

    if (match) {
      return fn;

    return null;

  function isCorrectInstance(arg, i) {
    var type = types[i];

    if (typeof type === 'string') {
      return typeof arg === type;

    if (typeof type === 'function') {
      return arg instanceof type;

    return false;

  return matcher;

The first check the function executes is if the array of values args contains the same number of elements of the array of types. If this is not the case, it can immediately return null, since we know that the user provided a wrong number of parameters. The second check is on the type of the arguments. The isCorrectInstance function , which implements the type matching logic, accept two types of parameter specifications:

  • a string: in this case, the typeof operator is used on the argument, and the result is then compared with the value provided to matches.

  • a function: this allows to define parameter types in term of constructor functions. The match will be satisfied only if an object built by the given constructor is provided. The instanceof operator is used to perform this kind of check.

The last and missing piece is when, which generates the final function. The logic of when is quite simple, because it only has to go through every matcher, invoke them, and call the first non null function.

function when() {
  var matchers = array(arguments);

  function filtered() {
    var args = array(arguments);

    var fn = matchers.reduce(matches, null);

    function matches(result, matcher) {
      return result ? result : matcher(args);

    if (fn) {
      return fn.apply(null, args);

    throw new Error('invalid arguments');

  return filtered;

This approach has different benefits compared to the original implementation. In the first place, the code is highly reusable. The logic about parameter checking is encapsulated in a small, simple and reusable piece of code. Moreover, the implementation of provideSum is cleaner because each special case is handled in different functions. Each function can now focus only on the logic because it can assume that parameters will always be there and will always be of the correct type. This helps to improve the overall quality of the code, making your implementation more stable and readable.